By Efraim Racker
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Extra resources for A New Look at Mechanisms in Bioenergetics
This formulation includes two important basic assumptions: a com- 56 3. Phosphorylation and Membranology 3 P: + 3 A D P 3 ATP Fig. 3-4 The chemiosmotic reactions; the loops of the oxidation chain and the ATP-driven proton pump. partment is required and the mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to protons. According to Mitchell the formation of a proton motive force is achieved by an asymmetric organization of the oxidation chain in three loops. Mitchell (1966) has formulated in great detail the individual components of these loops.
2-4. 5 mM) CFi was released and photophosphorylation was lost, whereas at 5 or 10 mM EDTA the activity was preserved and little trypsin-activated ATPase was detected in the supernatant. 5 mM EDTA and 10 mMNaCl the release of CFx was also prevented, it was apparent that ionic strength rather than high EDTA concentration was responsible for the protection. I mention these experiments because extraction of membrane components at low ionic strength is a very useful procedure which has 2. Photophosphorylation 36 O l 2 3 mM 4 5 EDTA Fig.
54 3. Phosphorylation and Membranology Chemical Chemiosmotic AH 2 AH 2 A-X Y X~Y Ca 2+ K + TPN and DPN reductions X~P ADP ADP ATP ATP Fig. 3-3 The chemical and chemiosmotic hypotheses of oxidative phosphorylation. 3-3). In intact mitochondria, energy-dependent reactions such as 2+ 2+ + active transport of C a , M g , or K can be driven by substrate oxidation in the presence of oligomycin which prevents ATP formation. Similar experiments on two energy-dependent reductions can be performed with submitochondrial particles: (a) the reduction of DPN by succinate and (b) the energy-dependent transhydrogenation between TPN and DPNH.
A New Look at Mechanisms in Bioenergetics by Efraim Racker