Download e-book for kindle: Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering. Principles, by Clifford J. Studman

By Clifford J. Studman

ISBN-10: 0409604690

ISBN-13: 9780409604696

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For example a camera with a focal length lens of 150 mm in an aircraft at 5500 m has an RF of 1/36667. 6 Ground controls If the flying height is constant the contact scale will be the same in all the photographs. Unfortunately it is not easy to fly exactly 36 Aerial surveying horizontal for long periods and the ground itself rises and falls. 7 the effect of a change in ground height can be seen: the area on the right of the figure is not as large as the area on the left, but because the ground rises sharply, they both appear to be the same size on the photograph.

5 metre. Aneroids are also often used by surveyors for obtaining levels in remote areas, but their shortcomings, the need to use them in the correct way, and the methods of applying corrections should be understood. 1 Principle The fact which makes barometric surveying possible is that atmospheric pressure drops at a known rate as the height increases. The height or reduced level can therefore be calculated from the instantaneous pressure difference between two points. The pressure difference so found is converted into a height difference according to various calibration formulae, all of which, although similar, vary slightly and are non-linear.

This gives the height of the instrument's line of collimation relative to the bench-mark. b. The vertical angle is taken as positive if it is upwards (ie, an elevation), and negative if downwards (a depression). The definition of the starting position of the vertical scale needs to be checked: in some instruments a horizontal line would be read as 0 or 180°, while in others it would be 90 or 270°. This can cause confusion if not checked when the reading is being made. c. Height difference calculations can be a source of error if the sign convention for positive directions is not adhered to strictly.

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Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering. Principles, Models, Systems and Techniques by Clifford J. Studman

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